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Successful companies, no matter what the source of their capabilities, are pretty good at responding to evolutionary changes in their markets-what in The Innovator's Dilemma (Harvard Business School, 1997), Clayton Christensen referred to as sustaining innovation. Where they run into trouble is in handing or initiating revolutionary changes in their markets, or dealing with disruptive innovation (DI).
Sustaining technologies are innovations that make a product or service perform better in ways that customers in the mainstream market already value. Compaq's early adoption of Intel's 32-bit 386 microprocessor instead of the 16 -bit 286 chip was a sustaining innovation. So was Merrill Lynch's introduction of its Cash Management Account, which allowed customers to write checks against their equity accounts. Those were breakthrough innovations that sustained the best customers of these companies by providing something better than had previously been available.
Disruptive innovations create an entirely new market through the introduction of a new kind of product or service, one that's actually worse, initially, as judged by the performance metrics that mainstream customers value. Charles Schwab's initial entry as a bare-bones discount broker was a disruptive innovation relative to the offering of full-service brokers like Merrill Lynch. Merrill Lynch's best customers wanted more than Schwab-like services. Early personal computers were a disruptive innovation relative to mainframes and minicomputers. PCs were not powerful enough to run the computing applications that existed at the time they were introduced. These innovations were disruptive in that they didn't address the next-generation needs of leading customers in existing markets. They had other attributes, of course, that enabled new market applications to emerge-and the disruptive innovations improved so rapidly that they ultimately could address the needs of customers in the mainstream of the market as well.
Sustaining innovations are nearly always developed and introduced by established industry leaders. But those same companies never introduce-or cope well with-disruptive innovations. Why? Our resources-processes-values framework holds the answer. Industry leaders are organized to develop and introduce sustaining technologies. Month after month, year after year, they launch new and improved products to gain an edge over the competition. They do so by developing processes for evaluating the technological potential of sustaining innovations and for assessing their customers' needs for alternatives. Investment in sustaining technology also fits in with the values of leading companies in that they promise higher margins from better products sold to leading-edge customers.
Disruptive innovations occur so intermittently that no company has a routine process for handling them. Furthermore, because disruptive products nearly always promise lower profit margins per unit sold and are not attractive to the company's best customers, they' re inconsistent with the established company's values. Merrill Lynch had the resources-the people, money and technology required to succeed at the sustaining innovations (Cash Management Account) and the disruptive innovations (bare-bones discount brokering) that it has confronted in recent history. But its processes and values supported only the sustaining innovation: they became disabilities when the company needed to understand and confront the discount and on-line brokerage businesses.
The reason, therefore, that large companies often surrender emerging growth markets is that smaller, disruptive companies are actually more capable of pursuing them. Start-ups lack resources, but that doesn't matter. Their values can embrace small markets, and their cost structures can accommodate low margins. Their market research and resource allocation processes allow managers to proceed intuitively; every decision need not be backed by careful research and analysis. All these advantages add up to the ability to embrace and even initiate disruptive change.
According to the passage, DI is more difficult for companies to adopt because :
The disadvantages of DI are that:
How doesthe author differentiate between Sustaining Innovation (SI) and Disruptive Innovation (DI)?
According to the author, smaller companies are better suited to pursue DI because :
Read the passage and answer the questions.
A few years ago I was on my boat with one of my employees, a great guy named Keenon; I was supposed to be giving him pep talk and performance review. "When l think of what we do, I describe it as uncovering the riptide", I said. "Uncovering the riptide," Keenon said. "Yes, the idea is that we - you and I and everyone here - have the skills to identify the psychological forces that are pulling us away from shore and use them to get somewhere more productive." "Somewhere more productive," Keenon said. "Exactly," I said. "To a place where we can..." We had talked for about forty-five minutes when my son Brandon, who runs operations for the Black Swan Group,broke out laughing.
"I can't take it anymore! Don't you see ? Really, Dad, don't you see ?" I blinked. Did I see what? asked him. "All Keenon is doing is mirroring you. And he's been doing it for almost an hour." "Oh," I said, my face going red as Keenon began to laugh. He was totally right. Keenon had been playing with me the entire time, using the psychological tool that works most effectively with assertive guys like me: the mirror. Your personal negotiation style - and that of your counterpart - is formed through childhood, schooling, family, culture and a million other factors; by recognizing it you can identify your negotiating strengths and weaknesses (and those of your counterpart) and adjust your mind-set and strategies accordingly. Negotiation style is a crucial variable in bargaining. If you don't know what instinct will tell you or the other side to do in various circumstances, you'll have massive trouble gaming out effective strategies and tactics. You and your counterpart have habits of mind and behaviour, and once you identify them you can leverage them in a strategic manner. Just like Keenon did.
There's an entire library unto itself of research into the archetypes and behavioral profiles of all the possible people you're bound to meet at the negotiating table.It's flat-out overwhelming, so much so that it loses its utility. Over the last few years, in an effort primarily led by my son Brandon, we've consolidated and simplified all that research, cross-referencing it with our experiences in the field and the case studies of our business school students, and found that people fall into three broad categories. Some people are Accommodators; others-like me-are basically Assertive; and the rest are data-loving Analysts.
Accommodators think that as long as there is a free-flowing continuous exchange of information time is being well spent. They will yield a concession to appease or acquiesce and hope the other side reciprocates. The Assertive type believes time is money. For them, getting the solution perfect isn't as important as getting it done. Assertives are fiery people who love winning above all else, often at the expense of others. Analysts are methodical and diligent. They are not believe that as long as they are self-image is linked to minimizing working toward the best result in a thorough and systematic way, time mistakes. Their motto is : As much time as it takes to getit right.
A study of American lawyer-negotiators found that 65 percent of attorneys from
U.S. cities used a cooperative style while only 24 percent were truly assertive. And when these lawyers were graded for effectiveness, more than 75 percent of the effective group came from the cooperative type; only 12 percent were Assertive. So if you're not Assertive, don't despair. Blunt assertion is actually counter productive most of the time.
Remember, your personal negotiating style is not a straitjacket. No one is exclusively one style. Most of us have the capacity to throttle up our non-dominant styles should the situation call for it. But there is one basic truth about a successful bargaining style: To be good, you have to learn to be yourself at the bargaining table. To be great you have to add to your strengths, not replace them.
With respect to the passage, identify which of the following statement is correct:
Finishing the negotiation is more important than 'getting it right' for:
Select the most appropriatetitle for this passage:
Every wasted minute is a wasted dollar' is best associated with :
Much debate surrounds which kind of political system best achieves a functioning market economy with strong protection for property rights. People in the west tend to associate a representative democracy with a market economic system, strong property rights protection, and economic progress. Building on this, we tend to argue that democracy is good for growth.
However, some totalitarian regimes have fostered a market economy and strong property rights protection and have experienced rapid economic growth. Five of the fastest-growing economies of the past 30 years - China, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Konghad one thing in common at the start of their economic growth: Undemocratic governments. At the same time, countries with stable democratic governments, such as India, experienced sluggish economic growth for long periods. In 1992, Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore's leader for many years, told an audience, "I do not believe that democracy necessarily leads to development. I believe that a country needs to develop discipline more than democracy. The exuberance of democracy leads to undisciplined and disorderly conduct which is inimical to development."
However, those who argue for the value of a totalitarian regime miss an important point: If dictators made countries rich, then much of Africa, Asia, and Latin America should have been growing rapidly during 1960 to 1990 , and this was not the case. Only a totalitarian regime that is committed to a market system and strong protection of property rights is capable of promoting economic growth. Also, there is no guarantee that a dictatorship will continue to pursue such progressive policies. Dictators are rarely benevolent. Many are tempted to use the apparatus of the state to further their own private ends, violating property rights and stalling economic growth. Given this, it seems likely that democratic regimes are far more conducive to long-term economic growth than are dictatorships, even benevolent ones. Only in a well-functioning, mature democracy are property rights truly secure. Nor should we forget Amartya Sen's arguments where he says that states, by limiting human freedom, also suppress human development and therefore are detrimental to progress.
While it is possible to argue that democracy is not a necessary precondition for a free market economy in which property rights are protected, subsequent economic growth often leads to the establishment of a democratic regime. Several of the fastest-growing Asian economies adopted more democratic governments during the past three decades, including the East Asian economies of South Korea and Taiwan, Thus, although democracy may not always be the cause of initial economic progress, it seems to be one consequence of that progress.
The author believes that
East Asian economic growth model exhibits the following sequence:
The necessary condition for economic growth is :
The argument in the passage is built on the premise:
Read the passage and answer the questions. Japan presents an interesting case study of how culture can influence competitive advantage. Some scholars have argued that the culture of modern Japan lowers the costs of doing business relative to the costs in most Western nations. Japan's emphasis on group affiliation, loyalty, reciprocal obligations, honesty, and education all boost the competitiveness of Japanese companies. The emphasis on group affiliation and loyalty encourage individuals to identify strongly with the companies in which they work. This tends to foster an ethic of hard work and cooperation between management and labour "for the good of the company." Similarly, reciprocal obligation and honesty help foster an atmosphere of trust between companies and their suppliers. This encourages them to enter into long-term relationships with each other to work on inventory reduction, quality control, and design - all of which have been lacking in West, where the relationship between a company and its suppliers tends to be a short-term one structured around competitive bidding rather than one based on long-term mutual commitments. In addition, the availability of a pool of highly skilled labor, particularly engineers, has helped Japanese enterprises develop cost-reducing, process innovations that have boosted their productivity. Thus, cultural factors may help explain the success enjoyed by many Japanese businesses in the global market place. Most notably,it has been argued that the rise of Japan as an economic power during the second half of the twentieth century may be in part attributed to the economic consequences of its cultu
It also has been argued that the Japanese culture is less supportive of entrepreneurial activity than, say American society. In many ways entrepreneurial activity is a product of an individualistic mind-set, not a classic characteristic of the Japanese. This may explain why American enterprises, rather than Japanese corporations, dominate industries where entrepreneurship and innovation are highly valued, such as computer software and biotechnology. Of course, obvious and significant exceptions to this generalization exist. Masayoshi Son recognized the potential of software far faster than any of Japan's corporate giants; set up his company, Soft bank, in 1981 ; and over the past 30 years has built it into Japan's top software distributor. Similarly, dynamic entrepreneurial individuals established major Japanese companies such as Sony and Matsushita. But these examples maybe the exceptions that prove the rule, for as yet there has been no surge in entrepreneurial high-technology enterprises in Japan equivalent to what has occurred in the United States.
Masayoshi Son represents:
Japanese culture is supportive of:
In the passage the author mainly tries to:
Japanese business practices emphasize
Use the table for answering the following questions :
Complete the crosswords using words from the above table. There are more words than required. Hint :
(a) Across: Producing tears (b) Across : Mocking
(a) Down: Unpredictable (b) Down: Resembling a caveman
Below given (a) and (b) explain the meaning/synonym of two words from the above table. Identify the correct matching option from the choices given below:
(a) Idealistic but impractical
(b) Extremely thorough
Below given (a) and (b) explain the meaning/synonym of the two words from the above table. Identify the correct matching option from the choices given below :
(a) Change of fortune
Select the option which expresses a relationship similar to the one expressed in the italicized pair.
SAVAGE: BARBARIC: :
PERTINACIOUS: ASTUTE: :
DILATE : CONTRACT: :
SERENE : AGITATED: :
Direction : Fill in the blank with appropriate preposition given in the options:
The peasant refused to grovel ________ the feet of his master
Only the blood-stained road was a witness ________ his assassination.
Match each word in the left hand column with the description in the right hand column which best describes its meaning/synonym :
|(a) Schism||(i) Mollifying; Placating; Placebo; Sop|
|(b) Torsion||(ii) A soft gentle wind|
|(c) Zephyr||(iii) Twisting or turning something especially one end of something while the other end is held fixed|
|(d) Palliative||(iv) Courageous; Fearless; Bold; Valiant|
|(e) Intrepid||(v) Split; Division; Faction|
Identify the correct sentence from the given options :
Choose the option that best describes the meaning of each of the following idioms and phrases:
To flog a dead horse :
A pipe dream :
Ante meridiem :
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words given in the options :
Sunita's _______ in athletics yielded rich _______ as she got a scholarship
In _________ of international matters, there is always an element of risk in ________ one might do.
Each question comprises four sentences (A), (B), (C) and (D). Arrange the sentences in a correct and meaningful order.
(A) Particular finger positions or gestures of the hand, common to their age and civilization, delivered a message that was instantly
recognized by those who understood the symbolism.
(B) Since ancient times hands have been used in cave paintings, drawings, sculpture and fine art as symbols of communication.
(C) European religious paintings represented the Holy Trinity by the extended thumb, index and middle fingers of a hand.
(D) Ancient Egyptian and Semitic art, for example, depicted celestial power by a hand painted in the sky.
Choose the correct option.
(A) Some people are born with greater possibilities or 'potential intelligence' than others.
(B) Intelligence is improved by learning.
(C) It is no longer thought that intelligence is a general quality, underlying all behaviour and inherited wholly from our parents.
(D) However, this potential may not develop unless it is encouraged and stimulated by influences surrounding the child from birth.
Choose the correct option :
(A) The commission also wants insurers to be legally bound to provide compulsory cover for pedestrians and cyclists involved in
accidents with cars.
(B) A shake up of the law governing the industry across Europe will make it far easier for individuals to switch insurance companies.
(C) Plans were announced by the European Commission that should lead to greater competition in the vehicle insurance market.
(D) It should mean that companies are no longer able to restrict the length of time motorists may keep their vehicles in EU states
other than the ones in which they are registered.
Choose the correct option :
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