CAT 2019 Question Paper | Verbal Slot 1

CAT Previous Year Paper | CAT VARC Questions | Question 13

CAT 2019 VARC section was a true nightmare. It was the most taxing section of the three. With some of its questions requiring critical reasoning, demanded even the avid of the readers to read and reread the passages before landing on an answer. We've tried our best to present these actual questions from CAT 2019 VARC section in their least intimidating from (at least in the font), with detailed solutions in a student friendly format to test yourself and understand the importance of reading for VARC section of the CAT exam. For a curated reading list head out here: Bharath’s Reading List. If you are planning to take CAT 2019 paper as a full fledged mock, it would help if you go back to : CAT Question Bank and solve questions that are not from actual CAT Question papers.


Scientists recently discovered that Emperor Penguins—one of Antarctica’s most celebrated species—employ a particularly unusual technique for surviving the daily chill. As detailed in an article published today in the journal Biology Letters, the birds minimize heat loss by keeping the outer surface of their plumage below the temperature of the surrounding air. At the same time, the penguins’ thick plumage insulates their body and keeps it toasty. . . .

The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Overall, nearly the entire outer surface of the penguins’ bodies was below freezing at all times, except for their eyes and beaks. The scientists also used a computer simulation to determine how much heat was lost or gained from each part of the body—and discovered that by keeping their outer surface below air temperature, the birds might paradoxically be able to draw very slight amounts of heat from the air around them. The key to their trick is the difference between two different types of heat transfer: radiation and convection.

The penguins do lose internal body heat to the surrounding air through thermal radiation, just as our bodies do on a cold day. Because their bodies (but not surface plumage) are warmer than the surrounding air, heat gradually radiates outward over time, moving from a warmer material to a colder one. To maintain body temperature while losing heat, penguins, like all warm-blooded animals, rely on the metabolism of food. The penguins, though, have an additional strategy. Since their outer plumage is even colder than the air, the simulation showed that they might gain back a little of this heat through thermal convection—the transfer of heat via the movement of a fluid (in this case, the air). As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature.

Most of this heat, the researchers note, probably doesn’t make it all the way through the plumage and back to the penguins’ bodies, but it could make a slight difference. At the very least, the method by which a penguin’s plumage wicks heat from the bitterly cold air that surrounds it helps to cancel out some of the heat that’s radiating from its interior. And given the Emperors’ unusually demanding breeding cycle, every bit of warmth counts. . . . Since [penguins trek as far as 75 miles to the coast to breed and male penguins] don’t eat anything during [the incubation period of 64 days], conserving calories by giving up as little heat as possible is absolutely crucial.

Question 13 : All of the following, if true, would negate the findings of the study reported in the passage EXCEPT:

  1. the penguins’ plumage were made of a material that did not allow any heat transfer through convection or radiation.
  2. the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study were –10 degrees Fahrenheit.
  3. the temperature of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs were found to be 1.84, 7.24 and 9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively.
  4. the average temperature of the feet of penguins in the month of June 2008 were found to be 2.76 degrees Fahrenheit.

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Explanatory Answer

The question asks us to choose the answer option which would not negate the findings of the study reported in the passage.

Consider option 1. If the penguins’ plumage were made of a material that did not allow any heat transfer through convection or radiation, then the birds cannot minimize heat loss using their plumage. This negates the findings of the study.

Let us look at option 2. If the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study were –10 degrees Fahrenheit (instead of 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit reported in the study) and the penguins’ plumage on their heads, chests and backs were at -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit, then the birds’ plumage would be warmer than the surrounding air, making heat gain due to convection impossible. So, option 2 too goes against the findings of the study.

Consider option 3. If the temperature of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs were found to be 1.84, 7.24 and 9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively, then the plumage would be much warmer than the surrounding air. This would mean heat loss for the penguins. Option 3, too, negates the findings of the study.

Let us look at option 4. If the average temperature of the feet of penguins in the month of June 2008 were found to be 2.76 degrees Fahrenheit, instead of 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, the findings of the study would still hold good. This is the option that does not negate the findings of the study.


The question is "All of the following, if true, would negate the findings of the study reported in the passage EXCEPT:"

Hence, the answer is the average temperature of the feet of penguins in the month of June 2008 were found to be 2.76 degrees Fahrenheit.

Choice D is the correct answer.

 

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